JAMIE CROMARTIE'S STOCKTON WEBSITE
USE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF SOURCES
[Modified from the Stockton State College Policy Manual, which is based on Lester, J. D. 1971. Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide. Scott, Foresman. Glenview, Ill.]
Papers submitted for this course must properly cite all sources of information consulted. Misuse of sources, accidental or not, constitutes plagiarism. Incorrect papers must be rewritten; deliberate plagiarism will result in a failing grade on the assignment and will be reported to the Academic Vice-president in accordance with college policy.
[NOTE: items 3 and 4 show two ways to cite a source in the text. Always cite by author and year.]
Kuppers, M. 1989. Ecological significance of aboveground architectural patterns in woody plants: a question of cost-benefit relationships. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 4:374-379.
HOW TO CITE SOURCES IN YOUR TEXT
Cite all sources used in your text
by author and date. DO NOT cite by page numbers, except, and this is
optional, if you are giving a direct quote.
1. Put the author's last name and
the date in parentheses, next to the information you are citing. DO NOT
put a comma between the name and date. DO NOT put the parentheses
after the period at the end of the sentence.
For works with two authors, give both last names, joined by "and." For three or more authors, give only the first author's name followed by "et al." which stands for "and others."
For multiple works by the same author, give the years, separated by commas. For multiple works by different authors, give authors and dates, separated by commas. If you have multiple sources with the same author and year, they are differentiated by letters after the year (Smith 1988a, 1988b, etc.)
Floral traits that have been suggested to act as filters of animal visitors include colors that are inconspicuous to "nectar thieves" (Raven 1972); long, narrow corolla tubes (Alexandersson and Johnson 2001); unusual blends of compounds in floral fragrances (Schiestl et al. 1999);
Although experiments were not conducted by Olesen et al. (1998), they did find a general association on Mauritius between colored nectar and visitation by birds, especially occasional nectarivores such as bulbuls and white-eyes.
In a pioneering study, Stephenson (1981, 1982) found that iridoid glycosides in the nectar of Catalpa speciosa (Bignoniaceae) had an adverse effect on potential nectar thieves
Secondary compounds can change the appearance (Mione and Anderson 1996, Olesen et al. 1998, Weller et al. 1998), taste (Baker 1978, Hagler and Buchmann 1993, Adler 2000, Gardener and Gillman 2002),
Check this site from the Stockton Library for more detailed examples (note that they punctuate citations a bit differently than I do, but that's not a big deal). Also, check a sample article from Ecology, taken from the Library's JSTOR database, for the exact way I want it done.
List only sources cited in your text. Call the list "Literature Cited," not "Bibliography." The following are examples of sources, correctly listed:
DO NOT include words like "Volume" or "Pages."
DO NOT copy and paste citations directly from the Library Databases; you
must format it as shown in the examples below. If you can't find an author or
editor for a source, you can either put "Anon." or list a corporate author, like
"Library of Congress." If you can't find a date, put, "N.D."
JOURNAL ARTICLES ARE LISTED: Author last name, author first name. Year. Title of article. Title of Journal VOL:PP-PP
Banks, J. 1997. Do imperfect trade-offs affect the extinction debt phenomenon? Ecology 78: 1597-1601.
Barrett, J.W, C.E. Farnsworth, and W. Rutherford, Jr. 1962. Logging effects on regeneration and certain aspects of microclimate in northern hardwoods. J. Forest. 60: 630-639.
Huxel, G. and A. Hastings. 1998. Population size dependence, competitive coexistence and habitat destruction. J. Anim. Ecol. 67: 446-453.
Kremen, Claire. 1994. Biological inventory using target taxa: a case study of the butterflies of Madagascar. Ecological Applications 4: 407-422.
Shilling, F. 1997. Do habitat conservation plans protect endangered species? Science 276: 1662-1663.
BOOKS ARE LISTED: Author last name, author first name. Year. Title of Book Publisher. City of Publication. NUMBER OF PAGES.
Bormann, FR. and G. Likens. 1994. Pattern and Process in a Forested Ecosystem. Springer. New York. 266pp.
Gates, D.M.. 1993. Global change and its Biological Consequences. Sinauer. Sunderland MA. 280pp.
Rosenthal, G. and M. Berenbaum eds. 1992. Herbivores: their Interactions with Secondary Plant Metabolites Vol. II: Ecological and Evolutionary Processes. Academic Press. San Diego. 493pp.
ARTICLES IN BOOKS ARE CITED: Author last name, author first name. Year. Title of article. ppPAGE-PAGE In Editor's last name, editor first name. Title of Book Publisher. City of Publication
Gove, J.H., G.P. Patil, and C. Taillie. 1996. Diversity measurement and comparison with examples. Pp 176-192 in Szaro, R. and D. Johnston, eds. Biodiversity in Managed Landscapes. Oxford University Press. New York.
GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS ARE CITED: Author last name, author first name. Year. Title of Document. Name of Agency. Title of Document Series (if any). Number of Document in Series (if any). Number of Pages.
Gilbert, A.M. 1960. Silvicultural characteristics of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). U.S. Forest Serv., Northeast Forest. Exp. Sta. Paper 134. 18p.
INTERNET SOURCES ARE CITED: Author last name, author first name. Year. Title of document (webpage). Retreived date from Organization posting the document. URL
EXAMPLES [There are many more examples on the library pages: http://intraweb.stockton.edu/eyos/library/content/Static/Citation_Workshop/Bibliographical_examples/Examples_Layout.htm]
Library of Congress. 2010. Bill summary S. 1234. Retrieved 19 August 2010 from Thomas: Legislative Information on the Internet. Library of Congress, 101 Independence Ave.S.E. Washington, D.C. 20540. http://thomas.loc.gov/
McDonald, Michael. N.D. [N.D. means no date] A Framework for Ethical Decision-Making: Version 4 Ethics Shareware. Retrieved 12 September 2010 from UBC Centre for Applied Ethics. http://www.ethics.ubc.ca/mcdonald/decisions.html