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USE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF SOURCES

[Modified from the Stockton State College Policy Manual, which is based on Lester, J. D. 1971. Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide. Scott, Foresman. Glenview, Ill.]

Papers submitted for this course must properly cite all sources of information consulted. Misuse of sources, accidental or not, constitutes plagiarism. Incorrect papers must be rewritten; deliberate plagiarism will result in a failing grade on the assignment and will be reported to the Academic Vice-president in accordance with college policy.

The following are misuses of source materials:

    1. Direct quotes without quotation marks and citation (NOTE: It is better to summarize your sources and not rely on long quotations. Even when correctly cited, numerous, long quotes are not much different from plagiarism.)
    2. Close paraphrases of another's writing, which merely rearrange the original language, whether or not a citation is given
    3. Use of work from another course or this course from a previous term
    4. Work written for you by someone else

To avoid misuse you must:

    1. Cite all material taken from another author, giving the author's name and the year of publication, in your text
    2. Be sure all material is written in your own language and style (HINT: don't copy directly from sources when composing; take notes, summarizing the source your own words. Don't write your paper while looking at someone else's text.) See the Purdue OWL site on Paraphrasing.
    3. Use quotation marks where appropriate (but see warning above about too many long quotes)
    4. Provide a full, correct list of literature cited

EXAMPLE

    1. Original (a quote from Kuppers 1989) )
      "Different branching patterns and their repetitive expression during growth of woody plants can lead to different growth forms such as shrubs and trees, although they may also result in similar crown shapes"
    2. Plagiarized - near quotation, no citation
      Although they may produce similar crown shapes, different branching patterns and their repetition during growth of woody plants can lead to different growth forms such as shrubs and trees.
    3. Plagiarized - citation given, but too close a paraphrase of the original
      According to Kuppers (1989), different branching patterns and their repetitive expression during woody plant growth lead to different growth forms, including trees and shrubs. They may, however, result in similar crown shapes.
    4. Correct - cited and written in student's own language
      Whether a woody plant becomes a tree or shrub is determined by the way it repeatedly branches as it grows, but there may be more than one pattern that can produce a given shape (Kuppers 1989).

      [NOTE: items 3 and 4 show two ways to cite a source in the text. Always cite by author and year.]

LITERATURE CITED

Kuppers, M. 1989. Ecological significance of aboveground architectural patterns in woody plants: a question of cost-benefit relationships. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 4:374-379.

HOW TO CITE SOURCES IN YOUR TEXT

Cite all sources used in your text by author and date. DO NOT cite by page numbers, except, and this is optional, if you are giving a direct quote.
There are two basic ways to cite:

1. Put the author's last name and the date in parentheses, next to the information you are citing. DO NOT put a comma between the name and date. DO NOT put the parentheses after the period at the end of the sentence.
2. Fit the author's name into the sentence and put just the year in parentheses.

For works with two authors, give both last names, joined by "and." For three or more authors, give only the first author's name followed by "et al." which stands for "and others."

For multiple works by the same author, give the years, separated by commas. For multiple works by different authors, give authors and dates, separated by commas. If you have multiple sources with the same author and year, they are differentiated by letters after the year (Smith 1988a, 1988b, etc.)

Examples:

Floral traits that have been suggested to act as filters of animal visitors include colors that are inconspicuous to "nectar thieves" (Raven 1972); long, narrow corolla tubes (Alexandersson and Johnson 2001); unusual blends of compounds in floral fragrances (Schiestl et al. 1999);

Although experiments were not conducted by Olesen et al. (1998), they did find a general association on Mauritius between colored nectar and visitation by birds, especially occasional nectarivores such as bulbuls and white-eyes.

In a pioneering study, Stephenson (1981, 1982) found that iridoid glycosides in the nectar of Catalpa speciosa (Bignoniaceae) had an adverse effect on potential nectar thieves

Secondary compounds can change the appearance (Mione and Anderson 1996, Olesen et al. 1998, Weller et al. 1998), taste (Baker 1978, Hagler and Buchmann 1993, Adler 2000, Gardener and Gillman 2002),

[Source: Steven D. Johnson, Anna L. Hargreaves, Mark Brown 2006.Dark, bitter-tasting nectar functions as a filter of flower visitors in a bird-pollinated plant. Ecology 87:2709-2716]

HOW TO LIST SOURCES

Check this site from the Stockton Library for more detailed examples (note that they punctuate citations a bit differently than I do, but that's not a big deal). Also, check a sample article from Ecology, taken from the Library's JSTOR database, for the exact way I want it done.

List only sources cited in your text. Call the list "Literature Cited," not "Bibliography." The following are examples of sources, correctly listed:

DO NOT include words like "Volume" or "Pages." DO NOT copy and paste citations directly from the Library Databases; you must format it as shown in the examples below. If you can't find an author or editor for a source, you can either put "Anon." or list a corporate author, like "Library of Congress." If you can't find a date, put, "N.D."
If you have multiple sources with the same author and year, they are differentiated by letters after the year (Smith 1988a, 1988b, etc.)

JOURNAL ARTICLES ARE LISTED: Author last name, author first name. Year. Title of article. Title of Journal VOL:PP-PP

    EXAMPLES

Banks, J. 1997. Do imperfect trade-offs affect the extinction debt phenomenon? Ecology 78: 1597-1601.

Barrett, J.W, C.E. Farnsworth, and W. Rutherford, Jr. 1962. Logging effects on regeneration and certain aspects of microclimate in northern hardwoods. J. Forest. 60: 630-639.

Huxel, G. and A. Hastings. 1998. Population size dependence, competitive coexistence and habitat destruction. J. Anim. Ecol. 67: 446-453.

Kremen, Claire. 1994. Biological inventory using target taxa: a case study of the butterflies of Madagascar. Ecological Applications 4: 407-422.

Shilling, F. 1997. Do habitat conservation plans protect endangered species? Science 276: 1662-1663.

BOOKS ARE LISTED: Author last name, author first name. Year. Title of Book Publisher. City of Publication. NUMBER OF PAGES.

    EXAMPLES

Bormann, FR. and G. Likens. 1994. Pattern and Process in a Forested Ecosystem. Springer. New York. 266pp.

Gates, D.M.. 1993. Global change and its Biological Consequences. Sinauer. Sunderland MA. 280pp.

Rosenthal, G. and M. Berenbaum eds. 1992. Herbivores: their Interactions with Secondary Plant Metabolites Vol. II: Ecological and Evolutionary Processes. Academic Press. San Diego. 493pp.

ARTICLES IN BOOKS ARE CITED: Author last name, author first name. Year. Title of article. ppPAGE-PAGE In Editor's last name, editor first name. Title of Book Publisher. City of Publication

    EXAMPLES

Gove, J.H., G.P. Patil, and C. Taillie. 1996. Diversity measurement and comparison with examples. Pp 176-192 in Szaro, R. and D. Johnston, eds. Biodiversity in Managed Landscapes. Oxford University Press. New York.

GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS ARE CITED: Author last name, author first name. Year. Title of Document. Name of Agency. Title of Document Series (if any). Number of Document in Series (if any). Number of Pages.

    EXAMPLES

Gilbert, A.M. 1960. Silvicultural characteristics of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). U.S. Forest Serv., Northeast Forest. Exp. Sta. Paper 134. 18p.

INTERNET SOURCES ARE CITED: Author last name, author first name. Year. Title of document (webpage). Retreived date from Organization posting the document. URL

    EXAMPLES [There are many more examples on the library pages: http://intraweb.stockton.edu/eyos/library/content/Static/Citation_Workshop/Bibliographical_examples/Examples_Layout.htm]

Library of Congress. 2010. Bill summary S. 1234. Retrieved 19 August 2010 from Thomas: Legislative Information on the Internet. Library of Congress, 101 Independence Ave.S.E. Washington, D.C. 20540. http://thomas.loc.gov/

McDonald, Michael. N.D. [N.D. means no date] A Framework for Ethical Decision-Making: Version 4 Ethics Shareware. Retrieved 12 September 2010 from UBC Centre for Applied Ethics. http://www.ethics.ubc.ca/mcdonald/decisions.html