Return to Entomology schedule
Read: DDP, Chap. 10, BTJ Chap. 4 pp 74-75
REFERENCES: Gilbert, L. 1982 Aug. Coevolution of a butterfly and a vine. Sci. Am. 247(2): 110
Arimura, G-I. et al. 2000. Herbivore-induced volatiles elicit defence genes in lima bean leaves. Nature 406: 512-515.
Barrett, S. 1987 Sep. Mimicry in plants. Sci. Am. 257(3): 76
Carson, W. and R.B. Root. 2000. Herbivory and plant species coexistence: community regulation by an outbreaking phytophagous insect. Ecological Monographs 70: 73-100.
Ehrlich, P. and P. Raven. 1967. Butterflies and plants. Scientific American (June) reprinted in Ecology, Evolution, and Population Biology.
Engler, H. et al. 2000. Preventing cyanide release from leaves. Nature 406: 144-145.
Gavloski, J. and R. Lamb. 2000. Specific impacts of herbivores...on young plants. Environ Entomol 29: 1-7.
Greene, E. 1989. A diet-induced…polymorphism in a caterpillar. Science 243: 643-646
Haddad, N. and W. Hicks. 2000. Host pubesence and...Papilio troilus. Environ Entomol 29: 299-303.
Karban, R. and I. Baldwin. 1997. Induced Responses to Herbivory. Chicago. Univ. Chicago Press. 319pp.
Levin, D.A. 1976. The chemical defenses of plants to pathogens and herbivores. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 7: 121-159.
Mitter, C. et al. 1991. Phylogenetic studies of insect-plant interactions: insights into the genesis of diversity. Trends. Ecol. Syst.6: 290-293
Rosenthal, G. 1986 Jan. The chemical defences of higher plants. Sci. Am. 254(1): 94
Rosenthal, G. 1983 Nov. A seed-eating beetle's adaptations to a poisonous seed. Sci. Am. 249(5): 164
Ryker, L. 1984. Acoustic and chemical signals in the life cycle of a beetle. Sci. Am. 250(6): 112
Stamp, N. and T. Casey. 1992. Caterpillars: Ecological and Evolutionary Constraints on Foraging. Routledge, Chapman and Hall. 548pp.
Van Zandt, P. and S. Mopper. 1998. A meta-analysis of adaptive deme formation in phytophagous insect populations. American Naturalist 152: 595-604.
plant defenses lecture notes - U. of No. AZ
Host location is a crucial factor in the herbivore life cycle
adult or nymph/larva may search for itself
may place egg on host; a few provision a nest
Visual cues very significant - leaf insects tend to react to yellow component of reflectance most attractive
shape a factor as well
Plant chemistry plays a key role
nutrients - sugars, starches, proteins and amino acids, fats, steroids, etc.
feeding stimulants - act once host is found
also oviposition stimulants
attractants - distinctive odors
repellants - odor, taste, feel
repellant for one species may attract another
Pollination - symbiosis, usually, but some cheat
mess and spoil types - beetles
moths & flies
bees most precise - euglossine bees and orchids
Herbivory - attack and defense adaptations leading to temporary advantage for plant or insect. Insects have complex, inducible systems of resistance to toxins, somewhat like the human immune system. Plants can also react to attack with inducible defenses. Recent work suggests that trees may even be able to react to attacks on nearby trees by increasing their defenses. Relationship dynamic. Insect that has overcome a particular chemical defense may use chemical as a cue to host location, or may sequester it as a defense.
Herbivore response to plant defenses
Orthoptera - Acrididae - chewers
Phasmidae - chewers
Miridae, Coreidae, and others - sap-tappers
Lygaeidae - seed slayers
Homoptera - sap-tappers (some gall-makers)
Lepidoptera - chewers (including rollers and tiers), miners, borers (larvae)
Symphyta (sawflies) - chewers, miners, borers (larvae)
Cynipidae - gall makers
Apoidea - nectar, pollen-feeders
Cerambycidae - borers (larvae)
Chrysomelidae - pit-feeders, chewers, miners, borers
Curculionidae - pit feeders, borers (larvae), seed slayers
Bruchidae - seed slayers (numerous other families feed on seeds, grain, flour, etc.)
Agromyzidae - miners (larvae)
Tephritidae - fruit borers (larvae)
numerous other families of miners, gall makers, etc.